Benefits and challenges of merging two companies in Pakistan


Mergers and acquisitions (M&A) have become an increasingly popular strategy for companies seeking growth, consolidation, or diversification in Pakistan. By merging two companies, organizations can capitalize on synergies, achieve economies of scale, enhance market share, and boost their competitive advantage. However, the process of merging two companies is not without its challenges.



A merger refers to the combination of two or more companies to form a single entity, resulting in the transfer of assets, liabilities, and ownership.


An acquisition involves one company taking over another, where the acquiring company assumes control and ownership of the target company.


Synergies are the combined strengths and advantages that result from merging two companies, leading to improved performance, increased efficiency, and enhanced competitive positioning.

Economies of Scale:

Economies of scale occur when the merged entity benefits from reduced costs and increased efficiency due to a larger scale of operations.

Market Share:

Market share refers to the percentage of total sales or revenue a company captures within a specific industry or market.

Benefits of Merging Two Companies in Pakistan:

Enhanced Competitive Advantage:

Merging two companies allows for the consolidation of resources, expertise, and market presence. This consolidation often results in a stronger competitive position, enabling the merged entity to better withstand competition and achieve sustainable growth.


In 2017, the merger of Pakistan’s Mobilink and Warid Telecom created Jazz, the country’s largest telecommunications service provider. This merger allowed Jazz to surpass its competitors in terms of subscribers, network coverage, and service quality, thereby strengthening its competitive advantage.

Synergies and Economies of Scale:

Merging companies often leads to synergistic effects, where the combined strengths of both entities generate greater value than the sum of their individual parts. This synergy can manifest in various forms, such as cost savings, improved operational efficiency, increased market reach, and shared resources.


The merger of Pakistan’s Fauji Fertilizer Company (FFC) and Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim (FFBL) in 2019 created a larger, more diversified entity. The merger resulted in significant cost savings through the consolidation of production facilities, procurement, and distribution networks. The combined entity also benefited from economies of scale, allowing it to optimize production and capture a larger market share.

Challenges of Merging Two Companies in Pakistan:

Cultural Integration:

Merging two companies involves combining different organizational cultures, work practices, and management styles. Achieving cultural integration can be a complex and time-consuming process, requiring effective communication, change management strategies, and a shared vision.


In 2016, the merger of Pakistan’s United Bank Limited (UBL) and National Bank of Pakistan (NBP) faced challenges in cultural integration. The two banks had distinct organizational cultures and management practices, leading to resistance and conflicts among employees. Successful integration required clear communication, training programs, and a collaborative approach to align the workforce with the merged entity’s vision.

Legal and Regulatory Considerations:

Merging companies must comply with various legal and regulatory frameworks, including competition laws, tax regulations, labor laws, and industry-specific regulations. Failure to navigate these complexities can lead to delays, legal disputes, financial penalties, and reputational damage.


The proposed merger between Pakistan’s K-Electric and Shanghai Electric faced regulatory challenges in 2021. The transaction required approvals from multiple regulatory bodies, including the Competition Commission of Pakistan and the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority. Delays in obtaining necessary approvals prolonged the merger process, affecting the companies’ operations and investor sentiment.

Case Study: The Engro-FrieslandCampina Merger

In 2016, Pakistan’s Engro Foods, a subsidiary of Engro Corporation, merged with FrieslandCampina, a Dutch multinational dairy cooperative. This merger aimed to combine Engro Foods’ local expertise with FrieslandCampina’s global knowledge and resources.


Enhanced product portfolio and access to global markets.
Technological advancements in milk processing and dairy farming.
Improved supply chain management and distribution networks.


Regulatory approvals and compliance with Pakistan’s competition laws.
Cultural integration between a Pakistani and Dutch corporate culture.
Managing stakeholders’ expectations, including employees and local dairy farmers.


Merging two companies in Pakistan offers numerous benefits, including enhanced competitive advantage, synergies, and economies of scale. However, challenges such as cultural integration, legal and regulatory considerations, and managing stakeholder expectations require careful planning and execution. The Engro-FrieslandCampina merger exemplifies both the benefits and challenges faced during the integration process. Ultimately, successful mergers in Pakistan require a well-defined strategy, effective communication, and meticulous attention to the legal, cultural, and operational aspects of the merging entities.